20+ Years of Studies on Spiking and Drugging

Here’s that more comprehensive list of studies:

The last two decades have seen a building consensus among scientists: the prevalence of drink spiking and involuntary drugging is, at least among those seeking medical attention, relatively rare.  Publications in more recent years include reviews of existing research as well as original data and case analysis. The articles emphasize the role of alcohol and voluntary use of drugs in producing symptoms and increasing vulnerability to opportunistic offenders, particularly in private settings.  As researchers in this area have been asking for more than a decade, frontline response still needs to develop a greater focus on reducing stigma around voluntary ingestion of alcohol and drugs for assault victims.

Skov K, Johansen SS, Linnet K, Nielsen MKK. A review on the forensic toxicology of global drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2022 Jan;26(1):183-197. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202201_27767. PMID: 35048994. [review article]

Helen Poulsen, Mary-Jane McCarthy, Jessica Baker, Avnish Verma, Hannah J Moir, Tara Brodie, Baljit Thatti, Gavin Trotter, Brian Rooney, Toxicological Assessment of the Role of Alcohol and Drugs in Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Cases in New Zealand, Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Volume 45, Issue 1, January 2021, Pages 44–52, https://doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkz110 [original research and review]

Anderson, L.J., Flynn, A., Drummer, O. et al. The role of voluntary and involuntary drug and alcohol consumption and premorbid mental health factors in drug-facilitated sexual assault. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 15, 382–391 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12024-019-00124-3 [original research]

Bertol E, Di Milia MG, Fioravanti A, Mari F, Palumbo D, Pascali JP, Vaiano F. Proactive drugs in DFSA cases: Toxicological findings in an eight-years study. Forensic Sci Int. 2018 Oct;291:207-215. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.08.032. Epub 2018 Aug 31. PMID: 30218868. [original research]

Tiemensma M, Davies B. Investigating drug-facilitated sexual assault at a dedicated forensic centre in Cape Town, South Africa. Forensic Sci Int. 2018 Jul;288:115-122. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.04.028. Epub 2018 Apr 23. PMID: 29738993. [original research]

Taís Regina Fiorentin and Barry Kerr Logan, “Toxicological Findings in 1000 Cases of Suspected Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault in the United States,” Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 61, November 2018    DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.11.006 [original research, via ResearchGate]

Laura Jane Anderson, Asher Flynn, Jennifer Lucinda Pilgrim, “A global epidemiological perspective on the toxicology of drug-facilitated sexual assault: A systematic review,” Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 47: 46–54,  April 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2017.02.005  [review article]

Cecilie T. Hagemann, Arne Helland, et al, Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center — Associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault,” Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 20, 2013, 777-784. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2013.05.005. [original research]

Janice Du Mont, Sheila Macdonald et al., “Drug-facilitated sexual assault in Ontario, Canada: Toxicological and DNA findings,” Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 17: 6, August 2010, 333 – 338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2010.05.004 [original research]

Németh, Z., Kun, B., & Demetrovics, Z. The involvement of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in reported sexual assaults: a systematic review. Journal of Psychopharmacology 24: 9, 2010, 1281-1287. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0269881110363315 [review and comment]

Bernadette Butler and Jan Welch, “Commentary: Drug-facilitated sexual assault,” CMAJ 180:5, March 3, 2009, 493-494.  CMAJ 2009  [comment and review]

Du Mont J., Macdonald S., Rotbard N., et al. Factors associated with suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault. CMAJ 2009;180:513-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.080570 [original research]

Paul Quigley, Dana Lynch, et al. Prospective Study of 101 Patients with Suspected Drink Spiking. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 21, 2009, 222-228. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-6723.2009.01185.x (original research)

Caryl M. Beynon, Clare McVeigh, Jim McVeigh, Conan Leavey and Mark A. Bellis. The Involvement of Drugs and Alcohol in Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: A Systematic Review of the Evidence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 9: 3, July 2009, 178-188. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1524838008320221 (review and comment)

J.A. Hall and C.B.T. Moore, “Drug facilitated sexual assault – A review,”Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 15, 2008, 291–297. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2007.12.005 . [review and comment]

Hywel Hughes, Rachael Peters, Gareth Davies, Keith Griffiths. A study of patients presenting to an emergency department having had a ‘spiked drink.’ Emergency Medicine Journal 24:2, 2007, 89-91. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/24/2/89.full.pdf  (original research)

S L Greene, C M Shiew, et al. What’s being used to spike your drink? Alleged spiked drink cases in inner city London. Postgraduate Medical Journal 83: 986, 2007, 754-758. https://doi.org/10.1136/pgmj.2007.059048  (original research)

Michael Hurley, Helen Parker, David L. Wells, “The epidemiology of drug facilitated sexual assault,” Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine 13, 2006, 181–185. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcfm.2006.02.005. (original research)

Michael Scott-Ham and Fiona Burton, “Toxicological findings in alleged cases of drug facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period,” Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine 12, 2005; 175–6. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcfm.2005.03.009 [original research]

Adam Negrusz, Estimate of the Incidence of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault in the U.S. Document No.: 212000. National Institutes of Justice, November 2005. [original research]

Adam Negrusz and R.E. Gaensslen, “Analytical developments in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 376, 2003: 1192–1197. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00216-003-1896-z [original research]

M.A. ElSohly and S.J. Salamone, “Prevalence of Drugs Used in Cases of Alleged Sexual Assault,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology 23:3, May-June 1999: 141-146. https://doi.org/10.1093/jat/23.3.141 [original research]

Ian Hindmarch and Rüdiger Brinkmann, “Trends in the Use of Alcohol and Other Drugs in Cases of Sexual Assault,” Human Psychopharmacology 14, 1999, 225-231. https://www.wiley.com/legacy/wileychi/psychiatry/92_ftp.pdf [original research]